Artificial Intelligence

           In  1955, an American Computer Scientist first coined the term “ Artificial Intelligence” for his proposal for Dartmouth Conference in 1956 and the inventor of the Programming Language “LISP”.  He worked at Princeton University, Stanford University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

 

The definition is very simple. Artificial Intelligence is an arts of Science and Engineering which can make intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. The main task involving in using human intelligence to computers. So, whatever we finds the human intelligence in any machines, it is occupies the AI techniques and procedures.

 

When Intelligence is concerned, the degree of human intelligence used for the computational part of the ability to achieve a goal for the humankind.

 

The research on Artificial Intelligence has started after the World War II, many number of researchers worked independently on Intelligent machines. Among them the first man, an English Mathematician named Alan Turing gave a lecture about Artificial Intelligence ( AI ) in 1947. He thought that developing computer programs can do much for Artificial Intelligence research rather than by building machines. On that day onwards many people are concentrated on the development of Computer Programs fro the research in AI.

 

Turing Test

 

An article “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” by Alan Turing in 1950 cited for the conditions to be consider a machine to be intelligent. He said that if the machines could do all the functions like a human being then you certainly conclude that it is intelligent. The witness of the Turing Test on that day could interact with the machine and a human in separate rooms to come to a conclusion which would be human and machine when he tried to test them.

 

Branches of AI

 

We considers there are only two the main branches of AI. They are Neural Networks and Expert systems. Many available are the only sub branches like Robotics,  Natural Language Understanding and Semantic modeling, Cognitive science, Learning, Vision and Games. Some people are defining these are all branches of AI.

 

Neural Network: The functions of the Brain is simulated in the form of Graphical representation and Imagery view for the learners for a particular problem.

 

Expert Systems:  Creating a Knowledgebase of a particular domain in a special manner thereby obtaining or making inferences and conclude to make a research oriented procedure.

 

More Branches like

  • Search
  • Inference
  • Representation
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Logical AI
  • Planning
  • Genetic Programming
  • Epistemology
  • Heuristics
  • Ontology
  • Learning from Experience
  • Common sense Knowledge and Reasoning

Neural Networks

 

Among the two main branches of Artificial Intelligence, Neural Networks is of them. It is an emulation of Human Neural System. The neurons which is connected to our Brain are represented as Models of Neural Networks. The computational tasks in the computer circuits and other components are emulated by these neuron models in such a way to obtain any software applications. The application includes Stock Trading,  Business Forecasting, mid- and small-size banks and financial institutions etc.,

 

Computer Science and AI

 

How does the field AI is related to Computer Science? It is like the relationship between Mathematics and Physics. Mathematics includes many techniques and concepts which Physics uses this, but the main goal of Physics is to understand the world, not to understand those concepts and techniques. Likewise Computer Science (along with Software Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics) develops many algorithms and processors to process it which helps to create powerful tools to be used in AI but these are not the main focus of AI. AI researchers uses these techniques and concepts by Computer Science in the process of studying and make research in AI. AI has made deep impact on other disciplines with which it is connected, particularly in Linguistics, Psychology and Philosophy.

 

Applications of AI

 

AI is a multi – disciplinary field. Listing the Applications for AI will comes to a long one as nowadays everything has Automatic and most of them are human replacement.

 

The list of Applications of AI now we discuss here will make many of our readers an extensive passion on AI. You too become a lover of AI. Also we can’t able to say the year wise development of Applications for AI. Some of them are developed separately and some of them are developed in parallel. Now we discuss them randomly but little bit in order. Though it is endless.

 

The Chess Game is considered as the first application of AI from the year 1970. Nowadays there are many advanced form of Chess game developed and made available for the users of them. In 1996, World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov defeated by the Computer IBM’s Deep Blue. The project of making a Chess machine to defeat the world chess champions was started in Carnegie Mellon University, U.S.A in the year 1989. You can read the history in our PDF file which can be purchased on demand.

 

Next comes the Medical Diagnosis which succeeds the Chess Game application development in the field of AI. This is considered as mostly research area in the year 1970s and 80s. The patient undergo a series of answering some questions based on the symptoms for the particular disease if he was suspected to have it.   The popular MYCIN is an Expert System which diagnose the disease from the symptoms database.

 

Let us have a look over the AI application in Cinema Industry. In the year 2010 a Tamil movie named Enthiran starred by Mr. Rajinikant in double role. In which the hero scientist Rajinikant develops a ROBO named Chitty given the Artificial Intelligence like exact functions of a human. The story claims that ROBO Chitty aimed to serve like human for the development of the country. Since all the functions are exactly cope up with the human activities unfortunately that silicon heart falls in love with the heroine of the film Aishwarya Rai. In fact the story goes on to capture the heroine in brutal force. But at the end of the film the hero wins from the Villain Robo Chitty. It is not far away to have the same like the Robo Chitty in real life. The future of AI by creating the Robots as equal as human beings might goes out of control as same as Robo in the film Enthiran.

 

Next in the Application of AI – Let’s discuss about Mr.Watson.

Who is Watson?

 

We have seen many ROBOs in so many Cinemas. Countries like China, Japan are involving in the creation of highly intelligence ROBOs which are telecasting in the news we are seeing in the TV. WATSON  is also a Super Powered Robo invented by IBM Corporation. It took 5 years to complete this invention project. This name is given in memory of Mr. Watson – Former President of IBM. During his period in IBM, the company shifted to tremendous growth.

 

The main features of this WATSON ROBO is very fast and exact answering about all subjects like Science, Arts, History, Mathematics, Space, Stories, Poems, Literature., etc., etc,. It is no need to type the questions, just simply give our voice. In any form of pronunciation it recognizes the question and it answers in a second. For example, “In his drama the main core is only love, and what is his wife’s birthday?”. If any one asks this type of questions what we do?. First we have to collect our self in our mind all the Drama writers whose main theme is love. Then whose is having high count. And then Did he married, what is his wife’s birthday?

 

Watson is stored with millions and millions of world data records which is as equal to 10 Wikipedia. Already the Super Computer by IBM namely “Deep Blue”   defeated the World Chess Champion Gary Kasparov cited above.


In fact it will be a great wonder that Watson may create a Supreme Computer which incorporates all the Programming languages in the Computer field and 1000 times greater than Watson itself. Yes this ROBO built-up of 90 High power servers  could do this challenge as soon as possible.

 

Human Cloning

 

In Medical Science, Human Cloning is considered as a miracle to the Human beings. A scientific method of non-sexual reproduction resulting to genetically identical copy of an adult animal. Scientist uses one method which is called Somatic nuclear cell transfer. The potential use of this Cloning is used to create a Human Repair Kit which could be used for the replacement of human parts damaged by accidents or due to severe disease.

 

Many countries banned this Cloning, however some countries allowing Cloning.

 

Artificial intelligence has successfully been used in a wide range of fields including Medical Diagnosis, Stock Trading, Robot Control, Law, Scientific Discovery, Video Games, Toys, and Web search engines.

 

Watch this video for a witness of Application of AI

The Accomplishment of AI

  • IBM, Dragon and Lernout & Hauspie deployed Speech Dialog systems
  • Fuzzy Controllers in Dishwashers etc…,
  • In the Hazardous areas like Factories and Industries where man can’t work, by Japan dominated Robots work.
  • Space Exploration in Mars
  • Computer Algebra Systems
  • Credit Evaluation - which is used by banks to scan credit card transactions for unusual patterns that might signal fraud. One piece of software is estimated to save banks $500 million annually.
  • A computerized Leukemia diagnosis system checking for blood disorders than human  experts
  • Automatic Answering through Interactive Voice Recognition System
  • Logistics Planning for 1991 Gulf War
  • Fraud Detection

Good Programming Languages for AI

  • For many years since the early years from 1970 to 1980 LISP was used.
  • Prolog was one of the first logic programming languages. This language wins 'cool idea' competition. 
  • Python- Does not have widespread acceptance yet
  • C/C++- The speed demon of the bunch
  • Java – The newcomer

 

How should you enter into the field of AI?

  • First You should have interest on learning AI
  • You must posses some Mathematical Knowledge.
  • Learn some programming languages, at least C, Lisp and Prolog. Now C++ and Java
  • Little knowledge about Psychology and the Physiology of the nervous system.

For Psychology Students

 

AI is very much developed for the use of Psychology students who are interested in the field of Artificial Intelligence particularly in the studies of investigations in Psychology aimed at the understanding the human mind. We have the collections of information and the archives for the students who really interested to do the research in the field of AI. It will be very useful for the students who are new to the area. The collections should provide an interesting and accessible introduction for beginners of the Psychology area.

 

This page contains a brief overview of the technology. Complete coverage of this technical package can be purchased as an Electronic Copy by sending an e-mail to info@gurusoft.co.in mentioning your requirement. The price of the package is Rs.500/- only. This package contains the following documents.

1. Overview of this technology
2. Working of this technology
3. Its Applications
4. Projects and its sample Source codes
5. Huge list of website resources for your self study and future  reference
6. List of free softwares which uses this technology. 
7. Career guidance in this technology field like, companies having the job openings, companies of high payable jobs and career improvement.